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Air pollution kills 48,000 people a year in France, of which 34,000 are avoidable, according to a study published by France's health agency. The city of Paris has been active in cutting emissions due to vehicles.
When the air pollution levels rise too high in Paris, driving restrictions are imposed, as happened one day in March 2015. A combination of high vehicle emissions and adverse weather conditions led to a cloud of smog which almost completely obscured the city’s famous landmarks, including the Eiffel Tower. Paris was declared the most polluted city in the world – worse than Shanghai, which normally tops the list. Cars with even-numbered license plates and commercial vehicles over 3.5 tons were banned from entering the city from 5:30 a.m. until midnight. Electric and hybrid cars, natural gas-powered vehicles and carpools with three or more passengers were exempted from the ban. Speed limits were imposed, and public transport was free for the day. The previous year, a similar two-day ban was said to have had a positive impact on air quality, reducing the levels of carcinogenic PM10 particles (those with a diameter less than 10 microns) and toxic nitrogen oxides.
A new scheme introduced in July 2016 is to ban old, and therefore more polluting, vehicles from Paris. Based on a colour-coded sticker system for each car to display on the windscreen, the authorities can easily determine the age of a vehicle. Cars registered before 1997 are now no longer allowed to drive in some parts of the city between 8am and 8pm.
As a complement to the existing bicycle-sharing scheme, an electric car-sharing scheme has been introduced to reduce the levels of emissions due to vehicle exhausts. Although ambitious and expensive to set up – not only the electric cars themselves are costly, but also charging stations must be installed – it has been a success. The idea is that any resident in Paris should be able to reach a car within 5 minutes’ walk. The attitude to car-ownership from years before is changing, especially as the cost of insurance and parking have soared.  The service is particularly popular with young people, who are unlikely to be able to afford their own car.  And following recent terrorist attacks on the public transport, some people now prefer to drive rather than take the Metro or bus. It is affordable for all residents, not just the wealthy.
The scheme has been extended to other cities, all controlled from the headquarters in Paris. From there, cars can be contacted by telephone, for example, to inform the driver if he/she is driving outside the permitted zone. Or the driver can contact the centre in the event of a breakdown. However apart from a few isolated incidents of vandalism and plenty of dented bumpers there have been no major mechanical or electrical problems.
The cars have a range of up to 250 km between before a recharge which takes about four hours. The average rental time in Paris is 30-40 minutes. Each car is used on average 10 times per day, and the battery can be recharged up to 3.000 times.
Shanghai does not have good .
Pre-1997 cars .
The electric car-sharing system .
The scheme is popular because .
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autolib%27, Okt 2016
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