Study the information about -ing and -ed clauses.
1. Some clauses can begin with -ing or -ed.
Do you know the man talking to Sally?
The boy injured in the accident was taken to hospital.
2. We use -ing clauses when we want to point out what somebody (or something) is (was) doing at a particular time.
Police investigating the crime are looking for three men.
I was woken up by a bell ringing. (a bell was ringing)
3. You may also use an -ing clause not referring to a particular point in time.
The roads connecting two villages is very narrow.
Can you think of the name of a flower beginning with T?
4. -ed clauses have a passive meaning.
The man injured in the accident was taken to hospital.
Injured and invited are past participles. Many past participles are irregular and do not end in -ed.
For example, stolen, fallen, written.
Most of the goods made in this factory are exported.
5. We often use -ing and -ed clauses after there is/there was.
There were some children swimming in the lake.
Is there anyone waiting?